A bit of history
Luther was born on November 10, 1483, in Germany and died on February 18, 1546. He was first a lawyer before becoming an Augustinian monk in 1505, and was ordained a priest in 1507. While continuing his studies in pursuit of a Doctor of Theology degree, Luther discovered significant differences between what he read in the Bible and the theology and practices of the church. On October 31, 1517, he posted a challenge on the church door at Wittenberg University to debate various theological issues (“95 Theses”). Luther's hope was that the church would reform its practice and preaching to be more consistent with the Word of God as contained in the Bible.
What started as an academic debate escalated to a religious war, fueled by fiery temperaments and violent language on both sides. As a result, there was not a reformation of the church but a separation. "Lutheran" was a name applied to Luther and his followers as an insult but adopted as a badge of honor by them instead.
Today, most Protestant (or, non-Catholic) Christian denominations (including Baptist, Methodist, Episcopal, Reformed, Presbyterian, etc.) owe some debt to Martin Luther for beginning the movement of which they are apart. Lutherans consider themselves the oldest group of Protestant Christians. Worldwide there are approximately 66 million Lutheran Christians . Though there are few in the South (outside of North and South Carolina), they constitute one of the largest groups of Christians across the mid-West. Just as there are various types of Baptists (Southern Baptists, Primitive Baptists, National Baptists, etc.), there are various types of Lutherans. The largest group, to which Christ Lutheran belongs, is the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) with 4.6 million members. Though many associate the word “evangelical” with conservative, narrow-minded believers who believe in the necessity of a personal conversion and faith for salvation, for ELCA Lutherans its connection is with its origin with the Greek word for “Gospel”—the good news of the story of life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth, who Christians consider to be the Messiah (Savior) of the world.